Although the most commonly described nucleators are the Arp2/3 complex, and the formins, a third group, known as ‘tandem-monomer-binding nucleators’, has also been identified. Each member possesses tandem repeats of G-actin binding motifs.
Included in this group of nucleators are the Spire proteins, Cordon-bleu (Cobl), Leiomodin (Lmod-2), JMY and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Common to each of these proteins are repeats of the actin binding motif Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) homology 2 (WH2) domain. However, additional actin binding motifs may be present in the individual members, providing variation not their mechanisms of nucleation, but importantly, in the cellular functions they facilitate.
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Animation used by permission. Source: Janet Iwasa